Civil Services is a professional body of officials, permanent, paid and skilled. Civil Services includes those Public Servants (not being the holders of political or judicial offices) who are employed in Civil Capacity. There salary is wholly and directly paid out of Public exchequer.
The Civil Services is one of the most sought after career in our country. It provides good career growth and opportunity to serve in different parts of the country. It is a career that provides an opportunity to the civil servants to deal with different people of all walks of life. Civil Servants serve in different capacities and deal with people of all walks of life; they feel a sense of self-efficacy. Career available in other professions may not provide such diversity. This is why Civil Services provides such social recognition to an individual.
When we got independence, our country had political leaders with high moral values to serve the nation. These values were taught to them by our great leaders like Mahatma Gandhi, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and many others. Our first Prime Minister Pt Nehru and then serving Deputy Prime Sardar Ballabh Bhai Patel praised the role of Civil Servants in nation building. Sardar Ballabh Bhai Patel particularly was more enthusiastic and clear about the role civil servants have to play in the unification of the country.
Our Civil Servants have been working in professional capacity since independence. It is because of their professionalism, we have become largest democracy in the world, and oldest democracy in developing world.
Implementation of the policies decided by the political executive is the most important and the fundamental function of the Civil Service. The primary role of Civil Servants is to execute laws and policies on ground to attain the goals of welfare state.
Formulation and determination of policy is the function of the political executive. But the Civil Servants have also come to play on active role in it. They aid and advise the ministers in policy making. Political executive without administrative experience cannot understand the technical complexities of policies and hence depend on the advice of professional Civil Servants who are the experts on the subject matter.
Due to lack of time, pressure of work and increased complexities of legislation, the legislature makes laws in skeleton form. And delegates power to the Civil Servants to fill in the details. Thus Civil Servants also make laws in the form of the sub-laws and rules.
The Civil Servants also helps settling disputes between the Citizens and the State. Various Administrative Tribunals with Civil Servants working as judges are established as quasi-judicial bodies. The Debt Recovery Tribunal, Central Administrative Tribunal, etc are examples of such tribunals in India. These tribunals functions outside the ordinary court system.
The Civil Servants also perform function of planning and managing administration of public enterprises. They assist the ministers in fulfilling their responsibilities towards the parliament and it committees. Moreover in handling financial activities of the state, reforming and improving administration and public relations.
In the time of fast technological change and adoption of advanced communication systems our country is facing a lot of social upheavals and deficit in governance. In such circumstances, role of our Civil Services has become more important. Our Civil Servants are expected to act like agents of change and also cushion to prevent any social trouble. They have to act like an agent of social development, facilitator of economic development while maintaining law and order with the help of people and also to further enhance the moral fabric of the society.